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Membrane Technology

Ionada is a pioneer in membrane Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems (EGCS).   Our products and technologies are build upon Nanotechnology Hollow Fibre Porous Membranes, and are backed by a broad patent portfolio. Membrane separation technology offers many advantages over conventional exhaust gas treatment technologies including:  

 

  • no phase change 
  • simple operation with no moving components
  • modular and easy to scale up
  • low energy consumption
  • greater efficiency for raw materials and recycling of by-products
  • reduced equipment size.

 

All of these advantages translate into cost savings and environmentally sustainable processes.

How Our Technology Works

Our exhaust gas cleaning system, or scrubber, is similar to wet scrubbers. We both use a basic liquid absorbent to react with the acidic gases. The key difference is we do not spray the liquid absorbent into the exhaust stream to mix with the exhaust. Instead, we suspend the liquid absorbent in membranes to come in contact with the exhaust but not mix with the exhaust. Only the targeted gases are absorbed and selectively removed from the exhaust stream.  Nanotechnology hollow fibre porous membranes are the ideal contactor to maximize efficiency. 


Membrane Process

Membranes keep absorbent and exhaust gases seperate.

Membrane Contactor

Nanotechnolgy porous membranes for selective gas absorption.

Sulfur Oxides (SOx)

Pollutants emitted from marine diesel engines and power plants are associated with negative impacts to human health and the environment. Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is commonly known, occurs when SOx and NOx react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and oxidants to form various acidic compounds that later fall to earth in the form of precipitation or dry deposition of acidic particles. It contributes to damage of trees at high elevations and in some regions lakes and streams may become so acidic that they cannot support aquatic life. In addition, acid deposition accelerates the decay of building materials and paints, including irreplaceable buildings, statues, and sculptures that are part of our collective cultural heritage.

 

Ionada’s Membrane Scrubber offers a simple and cost effective solution to reduce SOx emissions from marine engines and power plants.

 

Fortunately, SOx are highly reactive acidic gases, and can easily be removed from the exhaust gas stream via chemical absorbents. Ionada’s membrane contactor process is ideal for the selective removal of SOx from the exhaust gases. Greater than 98 % SOx removal efficiency can be obtained. 


Our Membrane Scrubber has been tested and validated with a number of SOx absorbents including:

 

Seawater

Na2CO3 + H2SO3 → Na2SO3 + H2O + CO2    (Sodium Sulfite)
Na2SO3 + ½O2 → Na2SO4 (Sodium Sulfate)
Na2CO3 + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + H2O + CO2  (Sodium Sulfate)
 
Sodium Hydroxide
SO2 + NaOH → NaHSO3
NaHSO3 + NaOH → Na2SO3+H2O
 
Magnesium Hydroxide
SO2 + Mg(OH)2  →   MgSO3 + H2O
 
Potassium Carbonate
K2CO3 + SO2 →  K2SO3 + CO2 
2K2SO3+ O2 →  2K2SO4
 
In addition to generating sulfates, a non consumable reversible absorbent can also be used.
 
Please contact us to learn more about our SOx exhaust gas cleaning scrubbing technology and to obtain a no obligation proposals. 
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)

When fossil fuels are burned,  sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are released into the atmosphere. These chemical gases react with water, oxygen, and other substances to form solutions of sulfuric and nitric acid. Winds spread these acidic solutions across the atmosphere and over hundreds of kilometers. When acid rain reaches ground, it flows across the surface in runoff water, enters water systems, and sinks into the soil.  Acid rain has many ecological effects, but none is greater than its impact on lakes, streams, wetlands, and other aquatic environments. 

 

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are not very reactive acidic gases, and chemical absorbents are simply not practical.  Whereas sulfur compounds can be removed from fuel to reduce SOx (fuel desulfurization), this is not an option with NOx since they are a byproduct of the combustion air.   This problem is further compounded by diesel engines that must operate with excess air.


Ionada offers two technologies in combination with our membrane technology to reduce NOx and meet IMO Tier III requirements and EPA Tier 4 requirements.     The first is Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and the second is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR).  


Membrane Exhaust Gas Recirculation (MEGR)

Exhaust Gas Recirculation works by recirculating a portion of an engine’s exhaust gas back to the engine cylinders. This dilutes the oxygen in the incoming air stream and provides gases inert to combustion to act as absorbents of combustion heat to reduce peak in-cylinder temperatures. NOx is produced in a narrow band of high cylinder temperatures and pressures. In diesel engines, the exhaust gas replaces some of the excess oxygen in the pre-combustion mixture. Because NOx forms primarily when a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen is subjected to high temperature, the lower combustion chamber temperatures caused by EGR reduces the amount of NOx the combustion generates. It should be noted that the lower combustion temperatures reduce engine efficiency. 


Ionada’s Membrane Exhaust Gas Recirculation (MEGR) technology is ideal for heavy fuel oil engines and turbines.  Ionada’s membrane contactor simultaneously removes corrosive SOx gases, particulates, and cools the recirculation gases.   


Please contact us to learn more about our Membrane Exhaust Gas Recirculation (MEGR) for NOx reduction and to obtain a no obligation proposals.  


Membrane Selective Catalytic Reduction (MSCR)

Ionada’s Membrane Selective Catalytic Reduction (MSCR) technology is build upon Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology,  converting nitrogen oxides (NOx) with the aid of a catalyst into diatomic nitrogen and water.   We use gaseous reductant, typically anhydrous ammonia, aqueous ammonia or urea.   Our porous membranes remove and collect ammonia sulfates as a byproduct.   


Ionada’s Membrane Selective Catalytic Reduction (MSCR) technology is ideal for heavy fuel oil engines and turbines to for the simultaneous removal of SOx and NOx.

NOx Reaction & Reduction :

4NO + 4NH3 + O2 → 4N2 + 6H2O

2NO2 + 4NH3 + O2 → 3N2 + 6H2O

NO + NO2 + 2NH3 → 2N2 + 3H2O

Sulfur Reaction & Absorption:

2SO2 + O2 → 2SO32NH3 + SO3 + H2O → (NH4)2SO4 

NH3 + SO3 + H2O → NH4HSO4

  

Please contact us to learn more about our Membrane Selective Catalytic Reduction (MSCR) SOx and NOx exhaust gas cleaning scrubbing technology and to obtain a no obligation proposals.  

 

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

A greenhouse gas (GHG) is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect.  Without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earth’s surface would be about −18 °C (0 °F), rather than the present average of 15 °C (59 °F).  Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is a major component of CHGs.   Human activities since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution have produced a 40% increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, from 280 ppm in 1750 to 400 ppm in 2015.  It has been estimated that if greenhouse gas emissions continue at the present rate, Earth’s surface temperature could exceed historical values as early as 2047, with potentially harmful effects on ecosystems, biodiversity and the livelihoods of people worldwide. 

 

Ionada’s membrane CO2 scrubber utilizes amines for the removal of CO2 from the exhaust of coal, gas-fired power plants, and large marine engines. ColAmines solutions are circulated  in the membrane contactor to bind CO2. The binding is reversed at higher temperatures.

 

CO2 + 2 HOCH2CH2NH2 ↔ HOCH2CH2NH3+ + HOCH2CH2NH(CO2)

 

Please contact us to learn more about our CO2 Membrae Scrubber and to obtain a no obligation proposals.  

 

Technology Comparison

Ionada’s Membrane Scrubber™ is an alternative technology to Wet Scrubber and Dry Scrubbers on the market today. Each technology has it’s advantages and disadvantages and the selection of which technology is best suited for your application depends on many factors.  Below is brief technology comparison of the Wet Scrubber, Dry Scrubbers, and Membrane Scrubbers™. 

Wet Scrubbers

The polluted gas stream is brought into contact with the scrubbing liquid, by spraying it with the liquid or by forcing it through a pool of liquid. Wet Scrubbers remove pollutant gases by dissolving or absorbing them into the liquid.

 

Advantages
No secondary dust sources
Small small space requirements
Ability to collect gases as well as particulates
Ability to handle high-temperature, high-humidity gas streams
Capital cost low (if waste water treatment system not required)
Minimal fire and explosion hazards
Ability to achieve high collection efficiency (>95%)

 

Disadvantages
Creation of water-disposal problem
Waste product collected wet
Moist exhaust gas precludes use of most additional gas treatment controls
Steam plume capacity and/or droplet entrainment possibly objectionable
Solids buildup at the wet-dry interface
Relatively high maintenance costs
Must be protected from freezing
Low exit gas temperature reduces exhaust plume dispersion

Not effective in NOx or CO2 reduction 

Wet Scrubbers

Waste Water Discharge Challenges.

Dry Scrubbers

Dry scrubbers spray very fine absorbents into a vessel where they combine with flue gases or the flue gases are passed over granulate absorbent packing bed. The absorbent chemically reacts with the sulfur dioxide in the flue gases containing sulfur dioxide, removing the sulfur dioxide from the flue gases. The spent absorbent must then be removed and replaced with fresh absorbent.   

 

Advantages
A dry or semi-dry scrubbing system, unlike wet scrubbers, does not saturate the flue gas stream that is being treated with liquid. In some cases no liquid is added, while in others only the amount of liquid that can be evaporated in the flue gas without condensing is added. Therefore, dry scrubbers generally do not have a stack steam plume or waste water handling/disposal requirements.   

 

Disadvantages
Lower collection efficiency than wet scrubber (<95%).
Dry scrubbers typically use lime or limestone that have much slower reaction rates than sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and magnesium hydroxide utilized in web scrubbers. The result is an increase in scrubber size when compared to wet scrubbers.
Disposal costs for spent absorbent

Not effective in NOx or CO2 reduction 

Dry Scrubbers

Low Efficiency High Disposal Costs

Membrane Scrubbers

Membrane scrubbers are similar to wet scrubbers. The key difference the liquid liquid absorbent is not sprayed into the exhaust stream to mix with the exhaust. Instead, the liquid absorbent is suspended in porous membranes that come in contact with the exhaust but do not physically mix with the exhaust.  

 

Advantages

No waste water disposal problems
No secondary dust sources
Small small space requirements
Ability to handle high-temperature, high-humidity gas streams
Minimal fire and explosion hazards
Ability to achieve high collection efficiency (>95%)
No solids buildup
No steam plume
Lower operating costs than Wet or Dry Scrubbers
Less absorbent slip or losses up the stack
Simple passive membranes reduce complexity
Modular and easier to scale up
Horizontal or vertical orientation

Effective in SOx, NOx and CO2 reduction.

 

Disadvantages
Higher capital cost than wet or dry scrubbers if waste disposal treatment is excluded
Must be protected from freezing

Membrane Scrubbers

Zero discharge High efficiency Low operation cost

Marine Scrubber

Maritime shipping is the most cost effective and efficient way to transport large goods around the world. There are approximately 50,000 merchant ships that trade internationally, responsible for moving 90% of world trade. Clean and sustainable marine transportation industries are an important part of global trade, especially to those living in coastal communities and lake areas.

The worldwide growth in shipping has resulted in increased emissions. In response to these impacts the International Maritime Organization (IMO), through its Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), introduced regulations for the prevention of air pollution under Annex VI of the MARPOL Convention. The Annex imposes a framework of mandatory limits on emissions of sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) both globally and within designated sea areas, known as Emission Control Areas (ECAs). To meet SOx emission limits, ship operators currently have two options: using low-sulfur fuels or using a SOx scrubber.

 

Ionadas’ marine Membrane Scrubber™ system utilizes the latest in membrane technologies to provide ship owners a simple solution to save on fuel costs and satisfy the IMO Annex VI sulfur regulation.   Specifically designed for marine environments, our Membrane Scrubber™ provides superior operational performance, reliability and durability. By continuing to utilize low cost fuels, and decreasing both energy consumption and ongoing maintenance, ship owners are able to achieve a rapid return on investment (ROI).

 

With the introduction of the world’s first marine membrane EGCS, Ionada’s Membrane Scrubber™ system is applying the high efficiency, reliability, and low energy consumption of membrane technology to EGCS. The result is an EGCS that is is smaller, and more energy efficient than competitive wet scrubbers – making it the ideal solution for ship owners.

 

The Membrane Scrubber™ key advantages over wet scrubbers include:

Zero Wash Water Discharge

No PAH discharge

No turbidity discharge

No pH discharge

Fully VGP Compliant

No risk of being banned from operation in any port due to discharge restrictions.

No sludge disposal fees

Scale to any engine size Modular ‘Plug-n-Scrub’ design – providing leasing options to ship owners.

PID

One tank. One pump. Zero discharge.

Power Generation Scrubber

Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) power generation continues to contribute a significant portion of the global power supply, especially in regions with limited access to lower cost, cleaner burning, liquefied natural gas (LNG).  

 

As a residual product, HFO is a relatively inexpensive fuel, typically 30% – 50% less expensive than distillate fuels. The global increase in oil production will continue to keep oil prices low for the foreseeable future, making HFO power generation one of the most cost effective and reliable sources of electric power.

 

Ionada’s Membrane Scrubber™ exhaust gas cleaning scrubbing system provides a low cost, energy efficient, compact technology to reduce HFO power generation emissions and improve overall power plant efficiency through high efficiency cogeneration.     Ionada’s Membrane Scrubber™ system is the ideal solution for small power plants (0-100 MW), and remote power generation.

 

Key benefits of Ionada’s membrane exhaust gas cleaning scrubbing system over conventional wet exhaust scrubbing technology include:

50 % smaller size

30 % less energy consumption

No water consumption, and water recovery from exhaust – ideal for arid regions.

Ultra high efficiency heat recovery cogeneration.

 

The water and high efficiency cogeneration features of Ionada’s membrane technology improve the energy efficiency of conventional HFO power generation by up to 15%.

 

Please contact us to learn more about our HFO power generation exhaust gas cleaning scrubbing technology and to obtain a no obligation proposals.

Power Generation Scrubber

Zero Wastewater No Water Consumption 15 % Higher Efficiency

Licensing

Ionada continues to build Intellectual Property (IP) around membrane exhaust gas cleaning technology, and is interested in discussions with potential customers, users, and suppliers throughout the value chain in the licensing of the technology.


Ionada will help licensees implement this technology through Licensing Agreements, Technology Transfer projects, Joint Development Agreements, and R&D contracts.


Do you want to have more information or start a licensing process? The Ionada Licensing management team can help you.

Licensing

intellectual property patents know-how